The Role of Trade Credit in Business Operations
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Publication date: 2015-10-31
GNPJE 2015;279(5):33-64
The paper analyzes the importance of trade credit in the financing of enterprises in Poland and identifies factors determining the use of trade credit by Polish companies. Companies receive trade credit from their suppliers, while also extending credit to their own customers, the authors say. They analyze trade credit in net terms, looking at the difference between trade credit obtained and extended by companies. Trade credit received was measured as trade liabilities not including current expenses. Net trade credit is determined by factors including the size of the company, the industry it represents, the proportion of exports in total sales, and the proportion of foreign ownership in share capital. The analysis is based on panel data collected by Poland’s Central Statistical Office (GUS), specifically its F-02 annual reports for the 1995–2011 period. The Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) was used to estimate the coefficients of the model. The research shows that low sales profitability, a long Days Payable Outstanding period, low debt capacity, and a long cash conversion cycle are good predictors of the use of trade credit, the authors say. Their paper validates the hypothesis that greater growth opportunities and a greater ability to generate cash surpluses lead to an increase in trade credit extended. The authors also conclude that trade credit increases with an increase in the size of companies and that large companies tend to offer more trade credit. This is accompanied by a decreased propensity to incur credit and a smaller volume of net trade credit received, the authors say.
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