The Monetary Policy of the People’s Bank of China
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Publication date: 2012-02-29
GNPJE 2012;253(1-2):97-116
The article discusses the results of an empirical analysis of the determinants of monetary policy in China during the period of January 2000 to September 2010. The analysis was conducted using models of ordered dependent variables. The research took into account eight possible variables that could significantly influence the likelihood of changes in the annual deposit rate and the required reserve rate for the six largest banks: (1) real annual GDP growth in China; (2) the consumer price index (CPI); (3) the increase/decrease of real estate prices in the 35 largest urban areas in China; (4) the growth of retail sales of consumer goods; (5) the growth of China’s foreign reserves; (6) export growth; (7) the growth of loans to the non-financial sector; and (8) the purchasing managers index (PMI). GDP growth and lagged CPI inflation had a significant impact on the decisions of the People’s Bank of China on the required reserve rate in the analyzed period, the authors say. In turn, the future values of these variables were factors that influenced the level of the deposit rate. This suggests that, despite the lack of independence in shaping monetary policy, the decisions of the People’s Bank of China on interest rates were to an extent dictated by its own assessment of the outlook for economic growth and inflation. The study also revealed that the growth of real estate prices had a significant influence on the required reserve rate. This may be a harbinger of changes in the monetary policy reaction functions of key central banks in favor of a simultaneous use of monetary and macro-prudential policy tools to counter speculative bubbles on the real estate market. The applied research method did not make it possible to determine to what extent the demand gap and the deviation of inflation from the target influenced the decisions of the People’s Bank of China in the analyzed period, Borowski and Czerniak say. The role of these factors in China’s monetary policy is therefore an interesting area for further research, the authors conclude.
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