Macroeconomic Factors and Consumer Loan Repayment
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Uniwersytet Łódzki, Wydział Ekonomiczno-Socjologiczny
Publication date: 2018-12-20
Submission date: 2018-06-12
Acceptance date: 2018-10-17
GNPJE 2018;296(4):155–177
This article is the result of research aiming to quantify the association of macroeconomic factors and the risk of consumer loan default. Data at a medium level of aggregation was used to describe the consumer loan portfolio of one of Poland’s largest commercial banks during the period of 2004–2016. The sample consisted of more than 10,000 observations, describing cohorts of loans disbursed in the successive months of the period. The relations were investigated with the use of panel data models. The approach applied in modelling allows to better isolate the effect of the macroeconomic environment from other key factors determining credit risk, i.e. historic changes in the bank’s lending policy and the natural maturation process of the portfolio. The results confirm the interrelation of credit risk and the economic situation, represented in the model by the unemployment rate and industrial production. An increase in the unemployment rate is associated with the increase the default frequency, while greater dynamics of industrial production works in the opposite direction. Lags of up to 12 months were detected in this relationship. However, the connection of interest rates has not been confirmed. The presented model along with widely available macroeconomic forecasts and stress scenarios allows for more accurate prediction of portfolio deterioration during downturns. This will enable formulation of recommendations for bank lending policy during different phases of the business cycle.