RESEARCH PAPER
Factors Associated with the Capital Structure of Polish Companies in the Long and Short Term
 
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Capital Markets Department, Collegium of World Economy, SGH Warsaw School of Economics, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Natalia Szomko   

Capital Markets Department, Collegium of World Economy, SGH Warsaw School of Economics, al. Niepodległości 162, 02-554, Warszawa, Poland
Submission date: 2019-09-21
Final revision date: 2020-01-19
Acceptance date: 2020-01-20
Publication date: 2020-03-31
 
GNPJE 2020;301(1):55–74
 
KEYWORDS
JEL CLASSIFICATION CODES
G32
 
ABSTRACT
The aim of this article is to assess the long-term and short-term association between selected factors and the capital structure of Polish companies. In light of trade-off theory and pecking order theory, the main factors associated with the capital structure of firms are identified. Subsequently, a set of factors associated with debt ratios is analysed on the basis of previous empirical studies. Due to the properties of data describing the capital structure, it is argued that Between and Within fixed-effects estimators can be used to assess the long-term and short-term association of selected factors with the debt ratios of Polish companies. In both the long and short run, the capital structure of Polish companies is associated with profitability, the tangibility of assets, the non-debt tax shield, the tax rate, business risk, and liquidity. Growth opportunities, dividend payments, capital expenditures, and the financial deficit are only associated with debt ratios in the long term. In the short term, size and the industry median debt ratio play a significant role. The results of the study indicate that the direction and magnitude of the association of the studied factors with the debt ratios of Polish listed companies may differ between the long and short term.
 
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