Demographic Trends vs. Population Policy in Poland
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Publication date: 2016-06-30
GNPJE 2016;283(3):145–162
The objective of the paper is to present demographic trends in Poland from the end of World War II to 2014 and to highlight their impact on population policy. The analysis uses data from Poland’s Central Statistical Office (GUS). It is also based on reports by the Supreme Audit Office (NIK) about how family policy is coordinated in Poland. The results show that since 1989 fertility rates have dropped below the replacement threshold that needs to be met in order to keep the population steady. The rates continue to decline. In 2002, the number of deaths in Poland for the first time exceeded the number of live births. According to a demographic projection by the Central Statistical Office, as a result of adverse demographic developments, elderly people will account for a third of Poland’s population by 2050. Government efforts to increase fertility rates have failed to produce the expected results. Population policy in Poland has not been clearly defined, in a comprehensive and longterm manner, in any single document. Since there is no consistent method for calculating expenditure on family policy, it is impossible to analyze the costs and benefits of public financing on specific measures.